• Since 2000, the US has spent over $107 billion on the damages caused by floods
• The state of Iowa suffered from a $6 billion flood damage
• During the past seventeen years, however, annual damage costs have continued to increase
• In 2017 alone, the US spent $60.7 billion on floods, which accounts for 57% of the cumulative seventeen year total

• In 2017, San Jose suffered a flooding of the Coyote Creek which amounted to around $100 million in total damage and displaced 14,000 residents

Sensor Node: Periodically samples water level and sends the information securely to one or multiple Gateways
Base Station: Decrypts the received data packets and forwards them on a new secure channel to the Cloud Platform
Cloud Platform: Managing the Gateways, processing and visualization

High-Precision Water Level Measurement

Sensing Distance: 10 meters (32.8 foot)
Accuracy: 1 cm (0.393701 inch)

• The sensor meets the IP67 water intrusion standard
• Detection zone less than 10 degree
• Real-time calibration, filtering ambient noise
• Operational temperature -40◦C to +70◦C (-40◦F to +160◦F) • Frequency range of 42 KHz

A Very Low-Power Hardware Design

— ~5000 Lines of Code Carefully Engineered to Ensure Energy Efficiency
— Energy Usage (sleeop mode): 30 uA

• The sampling rate of the nodes depends on various factors, including the last-measured water level
• The sampling rate increases as the water level rises
• For the normal operation (i.e., no hazard detected), the sampling rate is between 5 to 15 minutes, depending on the configuration values
• Develop new smart mechanisms to dynamically adjust the sampling rate

Base Station

— After running several experiments, we decided to install the first Base Station on top of the SCU’s Swig building
— Number of floors: 12

Base Station Racks Installed on top of the Swig Building

Handling System Failure
• There are at least 3 Gateways that can receive from each Sensor Node
• Our design enables us to remotely control the power and operating system of the failed Gateway even without network access to that Gateway!

Fog-Cloud Coordination


• Ensure Low-Power Consumption
• Avoid Eavesdropping
• Avoid Data Tampering

Test and Evaluation

Location #1: 
Guadalupe Creek: W. St. John St.

Location #2: 
E Williams St (37.337051, -121.868368)

Location #3: 
Story Road (37.327537, -121.861446)

Location #4: 
Tully Road (37.31039, -121.843957)

Location #5 : 
Hellyer Ave (37.284118, -121.813629)

The Team

— Behnam Dezfouli: Project Director
— Tai Groot (undegraduate): Sensing, wireless communication, cloud, installation, testing
— JB Anderson (graduate): Wireless communication, testing
— Navid Shaghaghi (graduate): Sensing
— Peter Fergusen (undegraduate): Sensing
— Zac Cameron (undegraduate): Sensing
— Chelsey Li (graduate): Hardware Design
— Salma Magid (graduate): Edge Processing
— Francesco Petrini (undegraduate): Edge Processing
— Jay Sheth (graduate): Installation, Testing
— Michael Cannife (undegraduate): Wireless communication, testing